The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest industries in the world. It supplies paper to over 5 billion people worldwide. Originally, papermaking was a slow and labor-intensive process. Today pulping and papermaking are driven by capital-intensive technical equipment and high-tech and high-speed paper machines that produce rolls of paper at a speed that may reach 2000 m/min and with a web width that may exceed 8 m. Paper is essentially a sheet of cellulose fibers with a number of added constituents, when necessary, to affect the quality of the sheet and its fitness for the intended end use

Paper is an important material, used daily for many purposes worldwide. The global production of paper and cardboard stood at approximately 407 million metric tons in 2015. More than half of that production was attributable to packaging paper, whereas almost one-third was attributable to graphic paper. It has been estimated that global paper consumption in 2020 will amount to
500 million tons (
Fig. 1.1). This means growth of about 1.6% a year. Global consumption of paper has increased by almost half since 1980. The worlds three largest paper-producing countries are China, the United States, and Japan. These three countries account for half of the worlds total paper production, whereas the leading paper importing and exporting countries are Germany and the United States. Tables 1.1e1.4 show top five paper- and paperboard-producing countries,
wood pulp
eproducing countries, recovered paper-producing/collection countries, and nonwood pulpeproducing countries, respectively (FAO, 2015).
In a study conducted by (RISI is the best positioned and most authoritative global source of forest products information and data.) RISI (Annual Review of Global Pulp and Paper Statistics, 2015), global paper and paperboard production advanced 1.0% in 2014 to reach a new record level of 406.5 million tons, in spite of a continuous decline in North America and Europe. Positive growth in the cases of packaging and tissue grades continued to counteract the retreat in global graphic paper production. China has maintained the top position for both production and demand of total paper and paperboard since
2009, whereas the United States remained in the second place. China accounted for 25% of global
demand and 26% of global production of total paper and paperboard in 2014. The leading companies of the forest, paper, and packaging (FPP) industry as of 2015 were International Paper and Kimberly-Clark, both based in the United States.
The US paper industry earned around 96.1 billion US dollars of annual revenue in 2015. In
2016, International Paper generated more than 21 billion US dollars of revenue, whereas Kimberly-Clark made around 18.2 billion US
dollars. Other leading paper industry companies include Asia Pulp
& Paper from Indonesia, Svenska Cellulosa from Sweden, Stora Enso and UPM-Kymmene from Finland, and Oji Paper and Nippon Paper Group from Japan.

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